A Person Centered Approach to Health and Social Care

Aims :
To develop an understanding of the importance of a person centred approach in the health and
social care sector and how it is applied in practice in different health and social care settings,
Assessment Guidance :
To achieve this unit, learners must achieve the learning outcomes and meet the standards
specified by the assessment criteria for the unit. Additional assessment guidance is provided on
the ATHE sample assignment brief
Learning Outcomes
Assessment Criteria
1.Understand person-centred values within the health and social care sector
1.1 Explain the importance of person-centred values when working in health and social care
1.2 Describe how person-centred care has developed
1.3 Explain challenges associated with a person-centred approach
2. Understand equality, diversity and discrimination in relation to person-centred approaches
2.1 Explain the concepts of equality, diversity and discrimination in a health and social care
2.2 Describe legislation on equality, diversity and discrimination that promotes a person-centred
2.3 Describe sources of information, advice and support about equality, diversity and
discrimination that is available for individuals using health and social care services
3. Understand how person-centred care is applied in practice in health and social care settings
3.1 Explain the skills and personal qualities needed to develop relationships with individuals in a
health and social care setting.
3.2 Explain how a health and social care worker can promote an individual’s independence
3.3 Describe situations where the health and social care worker can ensure the privacy and
dignity of individuals
4. Be able to review own person-centred skills
4.1 Review own person centred skillsINDICATIVE CONTENT
1. LO1 Understand person-centred values within the health and social care sector
• Terminology used for person-centred care e.g. patient-centred care, personalisation, relationshipcentred care, mutuality
• Person-centred values:
o individuality, independence, privacy, partnership, choice, dignity, respect,
• Importance of person-centred values:
o Individual e.g. maintain individuality, personal rights, empowering
individuals,inclusion, participation in decision making about own care
o Provision of services: improve quality and person’s experience, help provide
the care required, help individuals become more active in caring
for themselves,reduce pressure on services
• Development of person-centred care
o Use of terminology by Carl Rogers in the early 60s
o Late 70s George Engel promoted a move from a medical to social model
of health
o 2000 NHS Plan highlighted need for personalisation and coordination
o 2001 – ‘patient centredness’ included as an aim of health care quality
o 2008 – Lord Darzi’s report on High Quality Care for All
o 2010 the Francis inquiries into failings in care
o 2012 Health and Social Care Act imposes a legal duty for NHS England to
involve patients in their own care
o Vision 2020 Scotland focuses on self-management
o Welsh White paper focuses on ‘The Listening Organisation
• Challenges:
o Respecting individual choice when other options may be more appropriate for the
interests of the person
o Effective communication
o Experience of staff and training provision
o Historical perspective of institutional care including use of medical model of care
i.e. focus on medical rather than social model of care
o Organisational issues e.g. safety and financial targets, lack of co-ordination of
2. LO2 Understand equality, diversity and discrimination in relation to person-centred
• Equality e.g. treated fairly, right to be respected as an individual, right to dignity,protected from
harm, access to personal information, able to communicate in a formthat is most appropriate for
the individual, care provided meets their individual needs
• Diversity e.g. individual differences, valued
• Discrimination e.g. stereotyping, abuse, bullying, infringement of individual rights,prejudice,
• Legislation e.g. Human Rights Act 1998, Disability Discrimination Act 2005, Data Protection Act
1998, Nursing and Residential Care Homes Regulations 1984(amended 2002), Care StandardsAct 2000, The Children Act 2004, Mental Capacity Act 2005, Age Discrimination Act 2006,
Equality Act 2010), The Convention on the Rights of the Child 1989, The Children Act 2004, Race
Relations (Amendment) Act 2000
• Sources of information e.g. medical practice web sites, policies e.g. access to
records,confidentiality, equal opportunity policies
o Advice e.g. social worker, health worker, medical practice
• Initiatives e.g. policies and codes of practice, values of care, staff recruitment policies,learning
and development of staff
o Practical application e.g. patient admission questionnaire
3. LO3 Understand how person-centred care is applied in practice in health and social care
• Effective communication skills e.g. appropriate use of volume, tone of voice,appropriate for
individual needs e.g. hearing or visual difficulties, the 6 Cs, empathy,observation, listening,
managing difficult situations, confidence, negotiation, clarifying Ways to support individuals and
asking questions, sense of humour.
• Ways to support individuals
o address them by name irrespective of levels of consciousness
o present range of options
o provide relevant information
o provide opportunity to ask questions
o talk with others
o respect their decision
o enable them to develop skills related to their decision e.g. if they develop skills in
self-care and have appropriate equipment they may not need to
make choices at this time
• Initiatives e.g. House of Care, Person and Family-Centred Care, Schwartz Rounds
• Appropriate environments to discuss personal and sensitive information e.g.
o the individual is dressed and covered appropriately to maintain dignity
o separate room or area to discuss personal issues
o use of screens to ensure privacy
o respecting an individual’s personal space
• Meaning of the terms ‘privacy’ and ‘dignity’ within a health and social care context
• Opportunities to promote privacy and dignity:
o Personal hygiene routines
o Medical procedures
o Daily routine e.g. support required at mealtimes
• Maintaining confidentiality of information including:
o Personal information and history
o Sexual orientation
o Beliefs
o Medical status
• Types of choices including:
o day-to- day routines such as choice of food, clothing, what to do
o long term choices e.g. where to live, support available, medical procedures
• Ethical considerations conflict of interests, balance between meeting needs and level of
resources, promoting individual choice whilst minimising risk, confidentiality and sharing
information.3. LO4 Be able to review own person-centred skills
• Identify and explain strengths and weaknesses using personal reflection and feedback from
• Opportunities to enhance skills e.g. voluntary work to gain experience, training,qualifications,
observing others, discussions with professionals
• Plan to build on identified strengths and address areas for development. Plan is realistic with
stated actions, timescales and measures to assess progress. Methods to obtain feedback on





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